05 Jun Hearing One Hundred Percent?
Chazal in Menachos, daf mem gimmel, amud bais says that a person must make one hundred brachos a day. This is based on the posuk “Ve’ata … ma Hashem.” The word “ma” is extracted to “meah.” On the other hand, we find in the Midrash that Dovid Hamelech established the one hundred brachos since at that time a plague was raging that caused one hundred people to die. As soon as Dovid established the one hundred brachos, the plague stopped. It seems that Dovid established it initially, but the concept was forgotten and re-established by Chazal. This is based on the teachings of the Machzor Vitri who was a talmid of Rashi. It would seem that this is a takana of Chazal and is not a mitzvas de’Oraysa. This would concur with the Shita of the Rambam. The Magen Avraham and Mishna Berura pasken like them. The Yereim in siman resh nun ches argues and says that saying one hundred brachos is a mitzvas de’Oraysa.
On Shabbos this becomes a challenge since we have a shorter Shmone Esrei. The Bais Yosef says in the name of the Rosh in Orach Chaim, siman mem vov that when thebrachos on the Torah and Haftorah are said, one should have kavana to be yotzei with Shomea K’oneh, thereby enabling it to be counted toward the one hundred total. The Bais Yosefsays an even a greater chidush. Even if the one reciting the bracha does so quietly and not everyone hears it; nevertheless, if you know what bracha he is making and you answeramein, you are yotzei. This seems to contradict what the Bais Yosef says in siman resh peh daled, seif gimmel where he says that one must be mechavin to the bracha and answeramein. The Mishna Berura paskens that the best way of making up the brachos is by eating fruits on Shabbos and getting additional brachos that way and not via Shomea K’oneh. He says that Shomea K’oneh is only when one has no extra foods for brachos.
The question arises whether the tzibbur is mechuyav in the brachos of the Torah or not, or is only the one getting the Aliyah mechuyav in the brachos? May the tzibbur be yotzei with Shomea K’oneh? The Magen Avraham in siman resh peh daled, seif koton daled says that the tzibbur is not mechuyav to be yotzei the brachos on the Torah, it is only the oleh that is chayev. We see from this that the only reason the tzibbur has to listen and have kavana is to be yotzei the one hundred brachos. This would seem to indicate that even if one already said Birchas Hashachar he may listen to another person saying the brachos and be yotzei meah brachos via the din of arvus (one Yid may be motzi another Yid even if the one being motzi is not mechuyav.) We could argue and say that there is a difference between birchas HaTorah of the oleh which Chazal established to be said betzibbur, and birchas Hashacharwhich can be said privately.
It would seem to me that the preferred way of getting the one hundred brachos would be either by eating extra foods or being yotzei brachos that are said b’tzibbur. Brachossaid in private would not count as part of the one hundred brachos.
May We be zocheh to the one hundred brachos and never again have the ninety-eight klalos.